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Com- ments posted in threads on pages of political figures tend to be longer. Still, com- ments are still short enough for a method like co-occurrence analysis to be rele- vant. The average length varies greatly between 38 characters and characters. Using term detection over the entire dataset of comments, Terms referencing sex- ual minorities were identified in comments and terms referencing atheists in comments. Most occurrences of terms referencing the Roma group and the Hungarian group by either neutral or derogative terms were identified in com- ments posted on the page of nationalist party leader Bogdan Diaconu.
Figure 1. Average length of comments number of characters with spaces Using co-occurrence analysis, approximately 2. Table 2. A more in-depth analysis of the data shows that there are spikes in the frequen- cy of co-occurrence of terms referencing groups with elements of violent language. Blogs For the 10 blogs in the sample a total of comments were collected and analyzed. In some cases, these also include trackbacks and spam. Most comments were collected from two blogs which have very active communities — arhiblog and zoso. While the average length of the comments is comparable roughly between and characters , one can easily notice that comments posted on blogs are on average lengthier.
Online news The total number of comments collected from online news websites is close to the size of the sample collected from blogs. Out of the total The average length of comments is also similar to blogs, ranging from characters on hot- news.
The analysis found references to the target groups in 2. However this percentage is double the percentage found for blogs and almost three times the percentage found for Facebook comments. Number of comments per publication Figure A higher frequency of obscene explicit language was detected in comments posted on blogs or online news outlets.
Still, it is worth noting, that more in-depth analysis may al- low precise pin-pointing of contexts in which these co-occurrences surge. Conclusion This research opens up new methodological pathways in researching online hate-speech in Romania. The analysis methods may be replicated and extended to cover more time and more contexts for online computer mediated communica- tion. Also Facebook pages belonging to other public figures, political parties or civil society groups might be of interest to future researchers. Interrogating the Facebook API is a relatively straight-forward an less error- prone method than Web scraping should the results of this study need be replicat- ed or extended in the future.
References 1. Andi, D. Cohen-Almagor, R. Fighting hate and bigotry on the Internet. Cristea, D. Linguistic resources and technologies for Roma- nian language. Computer Science Journal of Moldova. Dix, A.
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Human-Computer Interaction. Gagliardone, I. Gitari, N. Hughey, M.
Racist comments at online news sites: a methodo- logical dilemma for discourse analysis. Keyling, T. Meza, R. Weber, A. Related Papers. Targets of Online Hate Speech in Context. Moody, M.
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Jeremiah 29 verse Wehrenberg theatres st charles 18 cine showtimes. Mobiliar logo svg. Shantecha karta chalu aahe new natak download. The thread structure first appeared in Bulletin Board Systems, followed by Web forums and discussion groups, eventually becoming the most frequent feedback mechanism for blogging, media sharing and online social network systems.
The characteristics of this structure and its evolution to contemporary social media are described in Meza Most blogs or online publications are usually created using Web content man- agement systems such as Wordpress, Joomla, Drupal or Typo3. Users usually post comments in a section under each article.
Depending on how this aspect is man- aged by the site administrators, comments will be sent for approval or published immediately. More recently, a great number of Web content management systems have in- tegrated authentication through Google or Facebook accounts, sometimes even excluding the possibility of publishing comments anonymously or pseudony- mously altogether. Analyzing Co-occurrences in Online Comments From a methodological standpoint, detecting violent, obscene or hate speech is a problem for both media researchers and also content managers or digital plat- form owners.
Natural language processing is a complex task and there is a scar- city of tools available for most languages. Also, there is the risk of blocking legitimate comments that may just reference vulnerable groups or discussing related issues, without containing hate-speech or being politically incorrect.
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In the absence of well developed, easy to use tools for researchers in the so- cial sciences studying comments in Romanian, analyzing syntax, detecting nega- tives or interrogatives, irony or sarcasm is out of the question. Considering the above and given large enough data sets of short texts such as comments posted online , the author of the study proposes using co-occur- rence analysis to indicate points of interest that may be further explored in-depth through non-automated methods.
This type of analysis is widespread in communication and information sci- ences, especially in library science, but also in machine translation or natural lan- guage processing. Literature Review Although there are no analyses to date of hate-speech in Romanian online com- ments, this article mainly draws from two recent previous contributions: an over- view of the issue of hate-speech in Romania Angi et al.
Considering the above, the author reviewed the results of previous research on hate speech in order to identify the main targets of hate speech in the contempo- rary Romanian society. The same source mentions a nascent tendency towards a value gap between religious believers and secularists that may result in hate speech directed against atheists Angi et al. These frequent targets and the most frequent alternative terms used for refer- ring to them were used to construct the coding instrument, also adding terms re- ferring to another important historical ethnic minority in Transylvania - the Tran- sylvanian Saxons.
According to Gagliardone et al. Research Design The goal of this research is to identify and classify instances of hate-speech in Romanian language comments to online media posts and articles published in the first six months of Research Questions RQ1: What minority groups are frequently referenced in comments on popular Facebook pages, blogs and online news media? RQ2: What terms are used to reference groups identified as frequent targets of hate-speech?
Method Content analysis is the main method used to answer the research questions above. The author chose to analyze large datasets of comments using automated coding by key term detection in online comments. Sample The sample is comprised of all comments published on 25 Facebook pages, 10 blogs and the news sections of 5 major online news outlets between January 1 and June 30 The most popular page belonging to performing artist Inna was not included due to the fact that most of its posts are in English and its audience is international.
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You must learn how to balance reason with emotions, intuition with logic, and work with play. As a Life Path 5, you are a quick-witted fun loving person who loves to learn and play. You are a freedom fighter and adventure lover who needs to experience things for yourself, through your five senses. You are a natural storyteller, entertainer, and also a very good counselor. This is a highly social vibration so you are sure to be the life of the party. You are always fun to be around!
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As a Life Path 6, you are very sensitive to vibrations, and therefore wish for your environment and all your relationships to feel peaceful and harmonious. You are often highly idealistic, and find beauty all around you. You are strongly connected to music, colors, art, and anything that brings harmony and beauty. You can pick up the energy of a person or room instantly, because you are highly intuitive. This Life Path learns best from relating to others, so they often feel the need to be in a romantic relationship.
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